Thailand State of Pollution 2016
3 พ.ค. 60
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
Volume 2/2017, 13 January 2017 (B.E.2560)
Thailand State of Pollution 2016
Pollution Control Department has concluded Thailand,s state of pollution 2016 that the major water quality situation was determined to be at fair level. Coastal water quality fall in to good quality level. The overall air quality showed improvement. Average particulate matter trend in 10-year period became meet with the air quality standard. The situation of waste and hazardous waste management revealed that the amount of municipal solid waste increased for 190,000 tons from last year.
On 13 January 2017, Mr. Jatuporn Buruspat, Director General of Pollution Control Department, makes a statement on Thailand State of Pollution 2016. He said that the water quality of 59 major rivers and 6 still water resources, 43%, 34%, 23% of PCD monitored water resources quality was determined to be at fair, good and poor level, respectively. None of PCD monitored water resources quality was determined as very poor state. Trend of water quality situation during the 10-year period 2007-2016 (B.E. 2550 ? 2559) showed that the water resources in t good quality is slightly increased while water quality at poor quality is decreased. Water resources at very poor quality was not found since 2012 (B.E. 2555). Example water resources at good quality included Oon, Khwae Noi, Upper Tapi, Songkram, Lower Phang Rad, Trang, Upper Pattani, Khwae Yai, Nong Han, Upper Tha Chin, and Lam Chee. While Lower Chao Phaya, Upper Phang Rad, Lower Lam takong, Lopburi, Lower Tha Chin, Rayong, Kuang, Bueng Boraphet, Sakae Krang, and Kwan Phayao had water quality problem.
The overall coastal water quality of 2,800 kilometers along the Inner, Eastern, Western Gulf of Thailand, and Andaman Coast, 59%, 31%, 7%, 2% and 1% of overall coastal water quality was determined at good, fair, poor, very poor and very good quality. The trend of coastal water quality for 10-year period during 2007-2016 (B.E. 2550 ? 2559) showed the improvement. The area of major estuary of Inner Gulf of Thailand including Chao Phaya, Tha Chin and Me Klong was still found at poor quality. The example of some attractive beach with good quality of sea water quality included Thongtapan Bay (Koh PhaNgan, Surat Thani Province), Samila Beach (Songkhla Province), Haad Yao Beach (Trang Province), Nopparat Thara Beach (Krabi Province), Karon Beach and Patong Beach (Phuket Province).
Cause of water pollution problem was the discharge of untreated water into water resources. It was reported that 1.4 million out of 9.6 million cubic meters per day of municipal wastewater loading from over 24 million households was treated by 88 central waste water treatment plants out of 101 plants due to the limitation of budget in plant investment and its maintenance by Local Administration Organizations. Moreover, other sources of wastewater, business in local communities, industrial and agricultural sectors, did not comply with the law. For example, 51% of pollution point sources nearby the San Saab Canal and 16% of Tha Chin River Basin did not treat their wastewater according to the law.
In this regard, future activities on wastewater management plan are proposed as following: (1) to urge entrepreneurs? awareness and people participation in investigating wastewater effluent from pollution sources to the environment, (2) to establish the collection wastewater treatment fee to reform the whole wastewater management system in accordance with polluter pay principle, (3) to rehabilitate community wastewater treatment systems, (4) to increase the number of wastewater treatment systems in critical areas, (5) to increase strictness of monitoring and law enforcement on pollution source, and (6) to disseminate monitoring result to public.
Overall, the state of air quality in 2016 revealed that particulate matter diameter sized less than 10 micron (PM10) was the main pollutant. The data of air quality concluded from PCD monitoring stations in 31 provinces. Eight provinces namely Saraburi, Chiangrai, Mae Hong Sorn, Chiangmai, Payao, Nan, Lampang and Phrae show that the level of PM10 exceeded the standard more than 5%.
Air quality in critical areas, 3 areas faced critical air quality problem. In 9 Northern provinces, haze and smoke situation was monitored. The highest level of particulate matter (PM10) was found at 317 microgram per cubic metre in Chiangrai province. The level of particulate matter and number of hot spot detected decreased more than that found in 2015. However, in 2016 number of days where air quality exceeded the standard increased due to prolong drought period.
In Na Phra Lan subdistrict, Saraburi province, the monitoring result showed that the highest level of particulate matter was 267 microgram per cubic metre. The annual average of PM10 concentration decreased to 96 microgram per cubic metre. The number of days where the level of particulate matter exceeded the standard also decreased from 105 days to 89 days.
In the area of Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene 1,3-butadiene remained a problem as in 2015; exceeded the standard. While 1,2-dichloroethane was slightly improved except those found in the area nearby Industrial Estate.
Future activities in air quality management are proposed to strictly control and prevent air pollution. Vehicle pollution source will be controlled by promoting Thai vehicle industrial standard and the usage of fuels with an international standards of EURO 5/EURO 6. Solving critical problems in 9 Northern provinces by integrated cooperation with Ministry of Interior is continuously implemented in accordance with the Northern Haze Prevention and Mitigation Action Plan. The plan aimed to reduce severe situation of haze and smoke by 20% in the year 2017. Strictly mitigation measures and control pollution from cement factories and industrial plants in Na Phra Lan subdistrict, Saraburi province will be focused. Strictly mitigation measures and control pollution from other industrial pollution sources and ports regarding benzene 1,3-butadiene, and 1,2-dichloroethane in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province are included.
Regarding the state of waste and hazardous substances management in 2016, the total amount of municipal solid waste generated nationwide was 27.04 million tonnes or 74,073 tonnes per day, increased 190,000 tonnes (0.7%) from the year 2015. Of these, 4.20 million tonnes were generated in Bangkok and 22.84 million tonnes were generated in 76 provinces. The top five waste generation provinces per day were Bangkok, Chonburi, Nakonratchasima, Samut Prakan and Khonkaen. Continuing on the topic, nowadays people produce waste 1.14 kilogram per day, increased from last year.
Municipality waste management in Local Administrative Organizations, the total of 4,545 locals of 7,777 provided the services of collection and disposal in amount of 13.6 million tonnes (50% of total waste), correctly disposed 9.59 million tones (36%), incorrectly disposed (open burning, illegal dumping in abandoned pits) 11.69 million tonnes (43%) and waste utilization 5.76 million tonnes (21%).
Three types of hazardous waste are household hazardous waste, hazardous industrial waste and infectious waste. A total 3,512,069 tonnes of hazardous waste were estimated.
The amount of household hazardous waste was 606,319 tonnes. Most of them were waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) which was generated 393,070 tonnes (65 %) and other household hazardous waste such as batteries, chemical containers and light bulbs generated 213,249 tonnes (35 %). In addition, campaigning program on sorting household hazardous waste from other municipal waste has been promoted.
A total of hazardous industrial waste was 2,850,000 tones. 35% were disposed correctly which will be processed to waste-to-energy and disposal.
Infectious waste generated from public hospitals, private hospitals, clinics, animal healthcare centers and dangerous pathogen laboratories was 55,750 tones. 75% of infectious waste was disposed correctly by incinerators.
Future activities in waste and hazardous substances are implemented in accordance with the National Waste and Hazardous Waste Management Master Plan (2016 ? 2021) in order to force the management of those issues. The activities include promote public participation in waste reduction at sources and waste sorting, enhance potential of waste sorting and disposal, provide community hazardous waste collection centers, equipment end-of-life management program, responsibility and participation of all sector in managing waste and hazardous waste, issue related regulations, accelerate adoption for WEEE Act, coordinate with Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Public Health to enforce industrial factories, hospital and health care centers to dispose hazardous industrial waste and infectious waste.
Pollution complaints, Emergencies and pollution accident :. In 2016, There were about 686 complaints pollution complaints statistics reported by Pollution Control Department, the most complaints caused by bad odor, loudly noise and annoyances, dust, sewage and waste, respectively. The majority of which were come from on Industrial works, business premises, building and residences.
Emergencies and pollution accidents occurred in 2016 were 25 incidents recorded, which were emergencies from industrial plants and warehouses, chemical transportation and illegal dumping of toxic waste. Most of them occurred in Rayong province, Bangkok and Samut Prakan province. The latest news, in case of a dead giant freshwater stingray in Mea Klong river. The cause of death that a leakage of molasses from Ratchaburi Ethanol plant and high levels of free ammonia were determined.
Public Relation Section,
Pollution Control Department
Tel. 0 2298 2065 - 69 Fax. 0 2298 5374
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